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Saturday, June 7, 2014

What is the oil?

What is the oil?

Petroleum natural black liquid stinking consists of two elements carbon, hydrogen and mix them other elements such as sulfur, salts, water and other impurities .. It is believed that oil fields in the ground was before hundreds of millions of years, large tracts of sea water live where many of the marine fauna and flora The floods and rivers carrying sand and clay and the remains of terrestrial plants and animals that Scraping with it and develops and at the bottom of the sea and Thus originated the layers in the seabed on each other and by the intense pressure and heat esoteric and the interaction of the bacteria remains of animals turned into oil material …
And Gateway ((oil)) means ((shale oil)) because it is flowing rocks forms of painting, he gas mixed with the liquid, which is located at the rear under high pressure, allowing the oil that explodes and flows. Varies the appearance of oil, according to the nature of the land from them, and Hogalba Black Color has the density of water. This type of oil is called ((Black Gold)) OR NOIR ratio for value

Of oil, petroleum products and motor fuels such as gasoline, diesel, kerosene and furnace oil and lubricating fats. It is the distillation of petroleum oil we get the oils used in the manufacture of cosmetics and medicine consisting of alkanes and cyclic alkanes.
Because of the low price and the availability and quality of it is used widely in many areas. It features acceptable properties in terms of lack of harms to humans and is used in lubricating and cooling is also used in the manufacture of electrical some parts Okhhry the

Friday, June 6, 2014

Gas production

. When Preparing fluid reservoir for storage before selling it requires removal of all vehicles volatile him to brings together consisting of gas production, and for the largest amount of liquid is advisable to shift the gas in several different stages in pressure and temperature. That the number of stages of the season and the pressure and temperature of these stages have a significant impact on the economics of production Engineering related Reservoir .
The amount of gas produced during the separation process under standard conditions is measured by the proportion of Li volume of oil produced. There are two types of records to find the real volume of gas, gas If the product is ready for sale or transportation, there are records available from gas sales. The engineer must or engineered find the amount of gas factory records for each field. It is rare liberal sale of gas from the ground oil tanks, and in some cases not being the sale of the gas separation vessels few pressure. When used factory in finding records should be corrected gas production properties of the fluid reservoir to the prevailing circumstances. As is the case with the production of oil and gas combines measured in reservoirs after battery production from several wells in common. However, if the output is required each well must customize the amount of gas produced from each well through the examination of the well information.

The second method used to obtain records of gas production is through the tests of time to produce the well. And these tests should be held under normal operating conditions and measured gas production from all vessels chapter except ground reservoir. The volume of oil produced must be corrected to the temperature of the tank and the amount of ground water and solids in it.

Divide the total amount of gas product on oil production, total debugger in the tank ground to give the percentage of gas production to oil the well appointed and apply this ratio between the middle of the period of time between the first examination of the production and inspection current and mid-term time between examination and current examination next year.

Being calculate the total gas production using gas-to-oil ratio for a certain period of time and the size of the oil produced during that period.


The process of separation of the main components of the crude oil distillation first step in the Alnaftyhz industry and this is the most important refining operations as it Blodhafah the Chapter plays an important role in the refining of petroleum products according to the specifications of marketing.

One of the main characteristics of the various petroleum products and Qapeletha the volatilization or evaporation, and this process depends on the particle size. In vehicles of similar type down Qapellet evaporation Kelml the large molecular size. Valgasulan liquid evaporates easily in normal conditions of temperature and pressure, while kerosene and fuel oil was needed to Tbkma heat Ely. And rigid products in normal conditions Khim paraffin, for example, requires Tschanhma to high temperatures highest Tcielhma and to temperatures more Ertfaaltbka.

And Ttertbt Kabalah volatilization boiling, Valsaúl the boiling point and sessile be more volatile than the liquid boiling point is high and when heating a liquid increases energy molecules and become able numerical largely skip the liquid surface into space, ie, that a large number of molecules turn into vapor case. When the vapor pressure equivalent to atmospheric pressure boiling liquid and a temperature at which they boil pure liquid boiling point. And remain constant such a degree that all the liquid evaporates. This is one of the task that are characterized by pure substances and boiling climate change pressure. Pure water is boiling, for example, in the normal atmospheric pressure at a temperature of 373k, as well as featuring all of hydrocarbons in crude oil boiling degree private and low boiling point decrease pressure and increase its altitude ..

Oil extraction

Oil extraction
Ranges from deep layers of oil in wide limits up to 5-6 thousand square meters and more oil and be in nature is always a companion for water and gas in accordance with the specific gravity the gas occupies the upper part and then followed by the oil and the water below it.
Wells are dug to extract oil from the ground to the surface and conducted a preliminary exploration and research to determine where to dig wells, which is extracted from petroleum and purpose of these operations is to study the installation of all the rocks area in which the exploration, examination rock layer Petroleum (capacity and porosity and Force and saturation oil) and determine the area oil field and approximate reserves of oil and gas.
And the most important methods of drilling is drilling and rotary drilling turbocharger and spin the drilling tool (ileum) intended (bit) in a rotary drill with each column of drilling pipes.
With depth in the well pipe connects to operating a new drill pipe and up the length of the column at the end of drilling pipes to drill several kilometers and to separate the rocks by the fragmentation of the well drilling tool is pumped through pipes to the bottom of the well drilling mud solution carries rocks to the top of the roof.
In the case of drilling turbocharger spins ileum by turbo especially down to the bottom of the well and are powered by the solution mud pump Further drilling vertical can by drilling turbocharger to achieve drilling oblique directed under buildings and ponds, and others, as well as drilling branching any drilling multiple wells from a single location and this drill is very comfortable when the exploitation of offshore oil fields.
Stages of development drilling and extraction of oil over time

Comes to mind when talking about petroleum engineering and extraction of the lower layers of the earth it is a difficult and complex process! Especially that the presence of a lot of multi-functional facilities in the field, engineers, owners of the highest salary in the salary scale gives us the impression that the extraction process is difficult and you need to nano steps! But it is true that the first oil well in the world drilled manually by one person only?!

Oil was at the beginning of the sixteenth century floats on the surface of the earth proportions slim in place of “Baku” in Azerbaijan. Someone has drilled wells up to 35 meters long only year 1594 in order to find the first oil reservoir in the world. Were approved manual drilling method “Baku” as the first method of drilling. The oil is extracted in this case by the descent of workers (no more than two people in mostly) to the bottom.

The method “Toole Cable” began in 1825 in North America. The idea includes having the engine lift lever is connected with a sharp a break-rock while the sustainability of the land, and this process is repeated until the maximum outreach to the rear, which is mostly the 300 meters. During the operation, the workers to go down to the bottom and raise rocks Fragmenting, which consumes a lot of time.

By the year 1860, which is considered a qualitative leap in the history of the oil industry, has been in Switzerland discovered a way which is still used today a rotary drilling, consisting of three Onmth: energy system, circulation, and lift. Be installed head of diamond, due to the hardness, the spindle does this column drilling efficiently during rotation underground to depths of up to 10 kilometers! The head is lubrication through the mud, and replaced at intervals whenever the need arise. As the application of this method is another horizontal drilling, which as at drilling under residential areas without causing any damage to them.

Way of the “Baku” and way “Alkeppltol” has been completely abandoned them, as the rotary drilling is in control until the present day. It is also worth mentioning that in spite of the total price for the extraction of oil is very high as well, one may cost more than $ 100 million, but the profit is far higher than the total value of transactions.

Medical uses of the petroleum

This oil is used some add some other materials to him as for children oil baby oil in the United States and in England and Canada and is also used for skin care. As eczema can be treated by light and is used to clean the ears, especially if you enter one of the insects in the ear. And fit to be mixed with sulfur and ointments compounds.

Uses in veterinary medicine

Mineral oil used in animal vaccination, is also used to disinfect legs birds كالبط and geese and chickens to prevent being infected with the fungus. Also used in the treatment of infections, and the prevention of licorice timber.

In mechanical machinery and electrical appliances
Mineral oils used thermal conductor. As it is compressible it is also used in hydraulic jacks stirring and pressing machines, also used in lubricants. The species used light than in the textile and jute industry.

Is also used to cool electrical appliances as it is a good insulator for electricity and works to keep the water and air. Therefore often used in electrical transformers and switchgear for high pressure to prevent electrical arcs random.

In the prevention

Because the oil does not absorb moisture oil is used as a cover or protective dip the water-sensitive materials. An example of this retention lithium where dunks lithium in a bath of petroleum oil. Well as keep on hand tools and metal weapons, knives and protection from rust and oxidation. Petroleum oil is used to polish and maintain the leather products. And Tzlk to keep the wood from decay.

Use in the food industry

Immunity petroleum oil to soak up water in addition to that, tasteless and odorless make protective material commonly used Tnzivaduat the kitchen, such as wooden Orma flesh and blood. And just let alone oiled wooden tool between now and then protects it from attached to the smell of food and facilitate cleaned as they maintain, where the crack of wood from continued Aptlalh and dried during use, also inhibit the bacteria gathered in the cracks that may exist in such tools.
Ka sometimes mineral oil used in the food industry, particularly in the production of some candy as interlock prevents the pieces together, and despite the reservation health administrative instructions in this regard for the candy industry, but the children candy factories in some of the country are still using.
In cleaning

Mineral oils are used to clean up heavy oils and that by easing their focus and facilitate the use of detergents. As can be cleaned and adhesives used as a cleaner and solvent inks in the printing and graphic colors, along with turpentine

Crude oil processing operations

Crude oil processing operations

Accompanies oil during leaving the Albirgazat the salts, water and mechanical impurities “Sand and clay”, and therefore must be separated these things Dziiavi the field, and then totally in the refinery.
The gases are separated associated in Hakolalbtrul in the special devices “fisheries”, then you pay to a gasoline unit to separate the light capacitors, which are often associated with the gases, which are separated Intensification and called “Gazolinatabiei”. Then pushes raw then to deposition warehouses, where Ahawaibalmikanekih is separated by sedimentation. After this is done remove salts from oil by washing fresh Alomlahbalme, then take away the water after that of oil. Petroleum and handling containing Nsphkberh than salts by 10 – 15% of the water two or three times. And separates water Manalpetrol in the sometimes relatively easily. But it is often difficult fixed Maalpetrol the emulsions chapter, especially during pumping operations and transport in pipes very quickly Mmisab the get rid of it.
A. Preparation of Petroleum Refining

(1) the expulsion of gases and install oil Fayalhakol

The gas Issahbalbtrul the while coming out of the well, must be separated from the oil. This is done Chapter in Hakolalbtrul in the special devices “fisheries”, and that by reducing the speed of movement of a mixture of oil and gas. The gas separation method is used at several stages in the case of a high pressure in the well.
But just not enough gas separation of oil, since leaving after the season many Alktefat of light Altikd evaporate during storage in warehouses and pour the oil in the tanks … Etc.. Therefore Vmanalmsthassan install in the oil fields, especially if the oil extracted contains Many of the the Alktefat light, to be transported long distances.
Oil boils down to install in light Vslalktefat and dissolved gases from crude. The direction for this purpose Alktefatalkhvifah fumes and gas after passing through the condenser to the gas separator gas separator, where separates Algazhoydf the pump to the gas network or to gas processing plants. And directs Almthbtely oil refining factories
Ahina gas separator used as the first water separator and called in Hzhalhalh 3phase separator (see figure)

(2) dewatering and salts Manalpetrol the
The water and mechanical impurities “salt, sand and mud,” always accompany oil during extraction. And separates water Manalpetrol in some cases, relatively easily, but it is stable emulsions with of Petroleum Vealbed other.
The oil must undergo who gets it in the image of emulsion, to Maaljhkhash the relatively complex to be separated from the water and mechanical impurities, as oil refining Zuhawaib held operation of industrial units to a large extent. For example, if you preheat the Petroleum containing mechanical Alyhoaúb in the heat exchanger, these impurities are deposited on the surface of the heating; which Aadaely reduce the adequacy of the heat exchanger, and during the passage of the oil in the pipe at high speeds Akonellgesemat solid abrasives effect, ie they rub in Vtpeleta devices prematurely. And leads the survival of mechanical impurities in petroleum residue after distillation, to reduce Godhhzh residues and increasing the percentage of ash (boiler fuel and coke), and to non Amkanehalhsol a nonconforming products.
And strongly water evaporates inside with Oil heating Faojhzh, the volume rises dramatically increased, leading to the lifting pressure in Alojhzhwalakhalal of the technical operating rates of the unit. It contains water located in petroleum Alykamih, the wide range of salts.
It Mmasbak clear that after the oil obtained from wells, must be subject to the preparatory treatment to Toverdrjh the purity required.
(3) Almsthlbatalbtrulah the
There are two types of petroleum emulsions: “Water in the oil”, Emulsions Oedrovobah-the hydorphobic, and “oil in the water,” Emulsions Yderofelih-hydrophilic.
The first type emulsions more prevalent second Manalnoa. In the first type emulsions there is water in the image of the amount of oil to countless of the micro-drops. As in Emulsions second type Vicualpetrol the-in the image of single droplets suspended in water.
The main process configure the following Almsthlebattfa: the boundary between asking not mixed with each other, and one dispersant in Alakhraly of the image very small particles, accumulate a third material necessary to form an emulsion and emulsion Tzmybaml or Sticky emulsion. The dissolves emulsion Working in one questioners Mkonama the like membrane. This obscures the membrane material dispersed droplets and prevents integration. And emulsified Hzhalawaml in oil is resins, Alosfeltinat and soap acid Alinvthehwalomlah. In addition to the articles mentioned, different solid impurities affect separated Faahd the eccentric on the stability of the emulsion.
And emulsified factors either Oadrofelah Ooaedrovobah. The asphalt resins and amino Alinvtheh found Vealbtrul natural compounds and emulsified Oedrovobah factors. The soaps Alsodiomahualbōtaseyoumah which consist mainly of interaction amino Alinvtheh found in oil 

Oil production methods

Oil production methods
Oil produced in three basic ways a way the fountain, the way pressure or gas lift, and how deep pumping.
Oil rises in case Nafory production (flowing) to the wellhead under pressure through a combination of class
High pressure tubular Mara fisheries separates the gas from the oil then enters oil capacity later in court.
The method uses a fountain at the beginning of the production of the well when the pressure is enough class or using special methods to maintain this pressure under the influence of water or gas pressure.
In the case of production air down columns of pipes in the well and pay in their ring vacuum compressed air or gas and have this air while passing through the liquid column of a mixture of oil and gas with low density and bringing this mixture to the surface of the well under the pressure of the surface layer.
In the case of production pumps down to the well by Pipes special pump drive oil to the surface of the well and run the pump using a column of bus bars by machine weights that ride above the surface of the well (the unit lifting oil) and machine kicks a responsibility Weighting relation to one of the ends of the column bus bars and the other party Pitman mechanism managed by an electric motor.
In the recent period, using electric submersible pumps down in the well by up through the pipes to the surface and oil pump works by Multi drive directly into the well and fed with electricity by a special cable.
And separating the oil extracted from the well for natural gas associated with the fisheries private and collects in the tanks where separated from the cluster of basic water and Alqazhurat then in tanks fields, which is subject to the petroleum and depositing clean additional if the oil in the case of Asthlabah ie if it contains water inseparable it passes During removal unit emulsifying.
Oil is transported in different ways, a pump in the pipes and transport in railway tanks and sea routes and river transport and Ousahm widespread piped

Oil pollution and all safety specializes in oil operations

Oil pollution and all safety specializes in oil operations

Fires and explosions at oil installations
The risk of fires and explosions in all phases of the oil industry one of the most important threats seriously considering procedures controlled administratively and engineered by the establishment of any oil project and engineering, because the oil and its derivatives (or gas) of material that accompanied used always with the risk of ignition and explosion.
So deliberately specialized companies in the oil industry to provide all means of fire prevention and securing all the necessary equipment to protect workers in their places of work and residence of the risk of fire. Especially near oil collection tanks and gas reservoirs in the oil fields or those adjacent to transmission lines and export ports.
Fire accidents are not limited to cause physical damage and can be associated human and environmental damage catastrophic, as it gets when crashing oil tankers in the seas and oceans or explode oil or gas wells during the production or dug them. Perhaps the closest incident historically what happened in Kuwait during the Iraqi aggression (was destroyed and burned more than 670 oil wells, and left the fire burning carried out toxins in the air, and deposited them huge amounts of crude oil formed after the fire is dubbed as the “oil lakes “exceeded the 300 Lake., and covered an area of ​​more than (49 square kilometers), and the mass of more than 40 million tons).
1-1 – fires fuel tanks:
These reservoirs are located at the oil companies, power plants, fuel depots, these tanks are used for storage of petroleum products, and usually built above the Earth’s surface is cylindrical horizontal or vertical cylindrical
1.1.1 – Types of oil reservoirs and barriers
A – tanks, surface hard: and have a conical shape, is being built and canning in the form of pieces, to be in the last tank capacity and size specific, and provides each tank ladder, metal and painted surface aluminized the spectrum to form a reflective layer of the sun’s rays that affect the evaporation of stored materials, and there is every tank of this type safety valve to drain excess pressure to the outside or offset the pressure inside the tank to drop, and stores usually in this type of reservoirs of petroleum products with degrees and flashing high due to lack of  Evaporation order to avoid explosions, such as heavy oil, diesel and asphalt can be stored oils light in such Reservoirs, but after taking reserves sufficient to prevent the entry of air and mixing with steam rising causing fluid in the formation of a mixture of flammable or explosive.
B – Tanks surface floating: designed surfaces of these types of reservoirs, where the comics, according to the amount of inventory and hardly of high and low during the discharge process, for that is equipped aspects of the surface floating Bjoinat rubber to avoid friction metal – metal when the movement of the surface coaxial, also prevents This type of design is the risk of mixing liquid stock with fumes outside air where it
Do not allow this fluid evaporation only in small quantities so as to avoid the dangers of mixing with air outside, and thus can avoid accidents, explosion or ignition, and there are on each tank of this type iron stairs up to the roof of the tank, and stored in this type of reservoirs of petroleum products with degrees and shimmer different.
C – barriers reservoirs: designed these barriers to save any substance leaking from the inside of the tank or overflowing on the back of the tank, whether such material burning or burning, and prevent it from spreading to the tanks again, as they are saving materials fire inside the barrier during the proceedings of control, inhibit leak and the spread of spot fire, so as not to extend the fire into the tanks the other, and designed these barriers so that accommodate the contents of the tank inside the barrier, but the capacity of some less than absorb the amount of inventory, so it is in the case of overflow tank should pull the largest possible amount of material accumulated inside the barrier. The barriers are divided into two types, some of which contains a num
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